JOSHUA KOLLMAN, DC
Member of the PGA Tour Sports Medicine Team
Fascial Stretch Certified Level 3 Medical Provider (FST)
Certified in Dry Needling
Certified in Acupuncture
Certified Selective Functional Movement Assessment (SFMA)
Certified in Functional Movement Screening (FMS)
Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist
Certified in Active Release Technique (ART)
Certified in Graston Technique
Titleist Performance Institute (TPI)
Certified Certified Chi Running Instructor
NASM, CPT, CES, PES
Dr. Joshua Kollmann received his Doctor of Chiropractic degree from New York Chiropractic College in Seneca Falls, NY. Dr. Kollmann has extensive education and experience in treating all levels of athletic needs as well as musculoskeletal conditions. He earned his Master’s Degree in Performance Enhancement and Injury Prevention from the California University of Pennsylvania as well as a Bachelor’s Degree in Kinesiology from Pennsylvania State University.
Dr. Kollmann has advanced training in treating soft tissue injuries, including full body certification in Active Release Technique (ART) and Graston Technique. He is a member of the National Strength and Conditioning Association and a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist. Dr. Kollmann has the distinction as a Performance Enhancement Specialist with the National Academy of Sports Medicine (NASM) which provides advanced skills to evaluate human movement. Building on a broad base of knowledge, he is certified in both acupuncture and dry needle specializations. Dr. Kollmann is also a Level III Medical Provider with Fascial Stretch Therapy (FST).
Dr. Kollmann has been one of the Team Chiropractors for the Carolina Panthers since 2011. He has also been treating as part of the PGA Sports Medicine Team since 2007.
Not only does Dr. Kollmann treat athletes at various events, but he is an avid triathlete and competitor. An accomplished Ironman, Kollmann competed in Ironman events in Lake Placid, Arizona, Louisville, and Cozumel. Dr. Kollmann has qualified and ran the Boston Marathon twice. He is also a USA Triathlon level 1 coach.
Dr. Kollmann’s philosophy is to utilize treatment plans founded on science, and care for patients compassionately utilizing a variety of Chiropractic, Soft Tissue Mobilization, and Rehabilitative techniques which will eliminate symptoms and improve overall function of the human body. He also strongly believes in patient education and empowering patients to improve the quality of their lives, because patients who know more about their conditions stay healthier.
BRADLEY WIEST, DC
Dr. Bradley Wiest has been practicing Chiropractic for 8 years. He is a graduate of Palmer College of Chiropractic in Port Orange, FL. During his schooling at Palmer, he earned his full body certification in Active Release Technique (ART), as well as Graston Technique, and did work with the Motion Palpation Institute.
Prior to Chiropractic school, Bradley attended Pennsylvania State University where he earned his Bachelor’s degree in Kinesiology as well as his Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) certification through the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA)and Personal Training Certification through the National Academy of Sports Medicine (NASM). This allowed him to work on performance enhancement with athletes on all levels throughout college.
Dr. Wiest has continued his education and earned his Fellowship with the International Academy of Medical Acupuncture and currently holds certification in Dry Needling. He is also certified in Muscle Activation Technique (MAT). Dr. Wiest was selected as the team Chiropractor for the Carolina Panthers in 2010 and continues to work with the team today.
Dr. Wiest believes that using whatever techniques necessary to “put the fire out” and then educating patients on how they can prevent the fire in the future, is the best short term and long term plan for a patient. He focuses on injury prevention and performance enhancement through treating the body as a whole and assessing the kinetic chain. In his spare time he enjoys doing triathlon and running, and has completed Ironman Cozumel in 2012, Ironman Florida in 2014 and Ironman Chattanooga in 2016. He is a member of Triple Threat Racing, a competitive triathlon team here in Charlotte. He also enjoys spending time with his wife, Amie and two sons, Ethan and Brycen.
BRITTANY FRAZER, DC
Perinatal Corrective Exercise Specialist (In Progress)
Fellow of the International Academy of Medical Acupuncture
Certified in Dryneedling
Functional Movement Techniques (FMT) Certified-RockTape, RockPods, RockFloss
Titleist Performance Institute (TPI) Certified
ART (Active Release Techniques) Certified
Motion Palpation Institute
DNS (Dynamic Neuromuscular Stabilization) Trained
Dr. Brittany Frazer is a Summa Cum Laude graduate of National University of Health Sciences in Lombard, IL, earning the title of Class Valedictorian. She has a particular interest in women’s health and pediatrics as she is Webster Certified and is in process of obtaining her Perinatal Corrective Exercise Specialist certification. She also has extensive study in acupuncture, dry needling, and biomechanics. Prior to her doctoral and post-graduate work, Dr. Frazer earned her Bachelor’s degree in Kinesiology from Miami University‘s Honors and Scholars program in Oxford, Ohio. During her undergraduate studies she also had the opportunity to study international health policy in Europe.
Since 2009, she has accumulated over 100 hours in advanced treatment through the Motion Palpation Institute and has acquired over 300 hours of acupuncture and dry needling training. In 2014, she completed continuing education in Dynamic Neuromuscular Stabilization (DNS) for athletes, which integrates concepts of developmental kinesiology with motor performance as well as pediatrics. Furthermore, she continues to pursue her McKenzie/MDT credentials, which is a unique approach designed to treat a multitude of injuries, specifically disc injuries. In January 2012, Dr. Frazer received her Titleist Performance Institute (TPI) golf fitness certification, which makes her uniquely qualified to assess and treat the functional deficits of golfers. She has also received additional training in FAKTR (Functional Assessment with Kinetic Treatment & Rehabilitation) methodology, which combines functional assessment, soft tissue mobilization, rehabilitation, and therapeutic taping procedures for positive clinical outcomes.
Dr. Frazer’s philosophy of care begins with a comprehensive assessment of the kinetic chain and identifying the weak links or energy leaks that lead to injury or decrease performance. By utilizing state of the art soft tissue treatments, joint mobilization, and rehabilitative concepts, she hopes to allow her patients to keep doing what they love, for as long as they want to do it. It
is this philosophy that drives her to continue her education so that she can deliver the most effective care – whether you’re a weekend warrior, momma-to-be, or active kid!
In her spare time, Dr. Frazer enjoys yoga, kayaking, outdoor adventures, creating art, and spending time with her husband (Stephen), kitties (Nugget & Blanche), and soon-to-arrive baby girl!
TYLER LEHMAN, DC
PGA Sports Medicine Team
Certified Rock Tape Provider
Dr. Tyler Lehman completed his Doctor of Chiropractic degree at National University of Health Sciences in Lombard, IL. Before completing his doctorate, Dr. Lehman received his Bachelor of Science degree from Francis Marion University in Florence,SC in which he majored in Biology. At Francis Marion Dr. Lehman played collegiate baseball for the Patriots.
Throughout his schooling and continuing education Dr. Tyler Lehman has focused his studies on assessing how the human body moves and performs optimally. Dr. Tyler Lehman uses therapies such as myofascial release, chiropractic manipulation, and corrective exercises to restore proper mobility and stability in his patients to get them out of pain, prevent future injury, and optimize performance.
In his spare time, Dr. Lehman enjoys playing softball, basketball, CrossFit, running, weight lifting, and other outdoors sports. Dr. Lehman grew up in Rock Hill, SC and graduated from Northwestern High School.
ANDY ROLAND, DC
Dr. Roland is a native of Buffalo, New York and is proud to be serving the Charlotte community. He attended Canisius College in Buffalo, NY for his undergraduate studies and he earned degree in Biology. It was during this time that Dr. Roland discovered Complementary and Alternative Medicine and specifically Chiropractic. He found that Chiropractic offered a unique doctor-patient dynamic and a perspective that emphasized conservative therapies to treat a wide variety of conditions, referring patients for prescription medications and surgeries only as a very last resort. Dr. Roland then studied at National University of Health Sciences in Lombard, IL for his Chiropractic training. His education mixed fundamentals of medical diagnosis and evidenced-based patient evaluation and management with elements of traditional Chiropractic. He graduated summa cum laude with a Doctorate in Chiropractic. Dr. Roland has attended specialized post-graduate classes for orthopedics and nutrition, and his focus on functional rehabilitation and a background in personal training is perfect for competitive and recreational athletes. His treatment plans often include chiropractic spinal manipulation, soft tissue manipulations and stretching, select physiological therapeutics, nutritional counseling and supplementation, and functional rehabilitation exercise. He is also the first, and currently the only, certified practitioner of Advanced Muscle Integration Technique (Ā.M.Ĭ.T.) in the Carolinas. Ā.M.Ĭ.T. is a unique system of analysis and treatment of musculoskeletal injuries which dramatically reduces healing time, providing immediate and long-lasting results.
MICHAEL DUFFY, DC
Dr. Duffy has completed advanced training in the Active Release Technique in Biomechanical Analysis and Advanced Palpation. He worked with Dr. Gregg Rose to receive training in Selective Functional Movement Analysis (SFMA) and then continued on to complete the Titleist Performance Institute Level 3(TPI) Medical provider certification. This makes Dr. Duffy uniquely qualified to evaluate athletic movements and correct the cause for acute and nagging injuries. He has completed extensive training to receive his Certified Chiropractic Extremities Practitioner (CCEP) certification. This includes adjustment, corrective exercises, taping, and performance enhancement.
Dr Duffy enjoys spending time with his wife, Alexandra and 13-year old daughter, Alana. With his daughter pursuing equestrian hunter/jumper events he became fascinated with the movement of the horse. He has been trained by the Animal Chiropractic Education Source to perform adjustment on horses. A fact that makes him cool to his daughter every now and then.
Dr. Duffy has received advanced training in correction and rehabilitation and enhancement. This means your problem will be dealt with from the source and all related areas. His goal is to create full healing then impart knowledge his patients on maintaining and progressing with the correction. Dr. Duffy ‘s training has allowed him to enjoy working with athletes at all levels from professional teams to those who get stuck on the couch.
Dr. Duffy’s philosophy is to utilize treatment plans founded on science and to care for patients compassionately with a variety of Chiropractic, Soft Tissue Mobilization, and Rehabilitative techniques that will eliminate symptoms and improve the overall function of the human body. He also strongly believes in patient education and empowering patients to improve the quality of their lives, because patients who know more about their conditions stay healthier.
BRITTANY HILLS, DPT, PT, MS, CES, FST Level 1-2
Corrective Exercise Specialist
Fascial Stretch Certified Level 1-2
Dr. Brittany Hills received her Doctorate of Physical Therapy from Wingate University with her
focus on return to sport management for athletes and oncological rehabilitation. Prior to physical
therapy school she attended the University of South Carolina where she earned a Bachelors in
Exercise Science as well as attending the California University of Pennsylvania where she
earned a Masters in Corrective Exercise and Rehabilitation. She has also earned Level 1-2
Fascial Stretch Certification from Stretch To Win Institute.
Dr. Brittany was a Level 10 Competitive gymnast. She still holds a passion for treating the
gymnastics community and preventing overuse injuries common in the sport. Following her
gymnastics career, she went on to run a number of half marathons and Spartan Races around
the country. During her time at Wingate University, Dr. Brittany focused on sports rehabilitation,
utilizing corrective exercise to treat countless musculoskeletal and neurological injuries often
seen in athletes.
Aside from treating athletes, Dr. Brittany has a personal connection with the oncological
community. While in school, Dr. Brittany instituted a movement class for oncology patients at
CHS (Pineville, Union and Anson Counties) aided by a Supervising Professor through her
program at Wingate University. She diagnosed functional impairments and mobility restrictions
due to their clinical diagnoses and coached patients to improve these limitations with
individualized movement plans and exercises. She also educated patients on injury prevention
techniques by providing up to date research and information for both prevention of injury in
compromised states and remaining active while combating chemotherapy effects.
Dr. Brittany hopes to spread knowledge and awareness about the importance of movement and
how it affects quality of life.
CORY LAIL, DPT, CERT DN, CF-L1
Certified in Dry Needling
Certified Clinical Management of the Fitness Athlete (In Process)
Professor – Anatomy and Physiology
Dr. Cory Lail received his Doctorate of Physical Therapy from Radford University where his student focused on conservative treatment of the spine and return to sport management with overhead athletes. Prior to physical therapy school he attended Virginia Commonwealth University where he earned a Bachelor’s in Exercise Science. He has also earned his Certification in Dry Needling from the American Academy of Manipulative Therapy.
Cory believes in an approach that revolves around advanced hands-on skills and appropriate progressive loading and strengthening exercises for all levels of athletes. This model allows the patient and physical therapist to work together and monitor the progress occurring before, after, and between sessions.
Outside of the clinic Cory enjoys staying active through Crossfit, basketball, golf, and running, as well as, traveling to National Parks and hiking with his wife Rebecca.
ZACHARY RATLIFF, DC
Certified Athletic Trainer (ATC)
Certified Strength & Conditioning Specialist (CSCS)
Certified Selective Functional Movement Assessment (SFMA)
Certified Functional Range Release
Dr. Zachary Ratliff received his Doctorate of Chiropractic from Logan University in St. Louis, Missouri where he graduated with honors. He spent much of his time working outside of the standard curriculum in order to receive intensive training in movement assessments, rehabilitation, and adjusting/spinal manipulation.
Dr. Zack received his Bachelor’s degree in Athletic Training from Appalachian State University. During his time at App State he worked directly with the wrestling, track & field and football teams. As a result he became well acclimated with the demands of competitive athletes and many musculoskeletal injuries.
Aside from treating athletes, Dr. Zack has a personal background in triathlons as well as running and cycling individually. He has completed the Beach2Battleship Half Ironman (now Ironman North Carolina), the 100-mile Blood, Sweat, & Gears cycling race through the Blue Ridge Mountains and several half and full marathons. Zack enjoys doing Crossfit as well in an effort to be a well rounded athlete.
As one of Dr. Zack’s patients you can expect a thorough exam to identify the root cause of your pain or loss of function. He’ll place emphasis on your personal education in order to provide the right tools and give you ownership over your health and body.
Dr. Zack’s personal philosophy centers on the concept that as humans we are made to move, and our body craves motion. His biggest goal is to get you back moving and functioning optimally in your specific lifestyle demands. Wherever you are in your health journey, Dr. Zack is here to help eliminate pain, improve function and empower you as a patient.
Anna Lipocky, DC, LAT
Licensed Athletic Trainer, NC
Certified in Dry Needling
McKenzie (MDT) Certified
Motion Palpation Institute
SFMA Level 1 Certified
Dr. Anna Lipocky is a graduate of Logan College of Chiropractic in St. Louis, MO. While going through the coursework of chiropractic school, she also was an avid member of both Rehab2Performance and Motion Palpation Clubs on campus. Rehab2performance taught Dr. Anna a multi-model approach to functional rehabilitation while Motion Palpation Institute taught the most current evidence-informed adjusting techniques. Both of them aim to bridge the gap between rehab, performance, and adjusting by integrating principles that span different disciplines. While in school, Anna accumulated over 400 hours of continuing education coursework. This allowed her to become certified in dry needling, active release technique, SFMA and other rehabilitation and diagnosis techniques such as McKenzie Method.
Dr. Anna considers herself a native Charlottean and a sports enthusiast, attending Marvin Ridge HS where she was active in track & varsity basketball. Prior to this she was an avid competitive dancer for which she still holds a passion for the dance community. Dr Anna went on to run track in college before deciding to focus on full-time athletic training at Appalachian State University. During her time as an athletic trainer she had the opportunity to work with a variety of the division 1 sports including basketball, track, soccer and football.
Dr Anna’s clinical interests include sports injuries, acute/chronic pain and overuse injuries to name a few. She is able to individualize patient treatment plans, adorning patients a high level of care & quick recovery utilizing several different techniques such as soft tissue mobilizations, chiropractic adjustments, rehabilitation and several others.Dr. Anna believes in evidence based care, patient education and empowering patients to take an active role in their recovery process.
In her spare time she loves spending time with her dog (Leo), family & friends, catching a couple half marathons, playing golf, and spending time at the lake!
Caroline Grosso, DC
Dr. Caroline Grosso is following her passion by helping people in the Charlotte area discover, realize, and live improved lifestyles through health and fitness. Grosso comes to Charlotte after pursuing her Doctorate of Chiropractic and Whole Foods Nutrition degree at New York Chiropractic College in Seneca Falls, NY.
During this time, she taught HIIT classes and provided personal training sessions prior to graduation in April of 2020. At graduation, Grosso was recognized with the Liborini Award, given to graduates for outstanding clinical recognition. She also graduated from McMaster University in December 2019 with her Medical Contemporary Neurofunctional Acupuncture License.
Her passion for training and coaching stems back to her collegiate days, where she was heavily involved in athletics as both a player and coach. Grosso started her athletic career at Niagara University, playing both women’s soccer and lacrosse while also interning for the strength and conditioning team. She furthered her collegiate career at Syracuse University, graduating in 2015 with a Bachelor of Science degree.
During her time with the Orange, Grosso was a member of the Women’s Lacrosse Team, winning the ACC Championship in 2015 and reaching the NCAA Final Four in back-to-back seasons in 2014 and 2015. For her exploits on and off-the-field, Grosso was recognized as a member of the Athletic Director’s Honor Roll in both 2014 and 2015.
In a similar trend, Grosso spent time focusing on her passion while at Syracuse, spending the 2014-15 year as an intern with the Strength & Conditioning Team, while also offering private personal training lessons during her three-year tenure with the Orange. She carried that passion to Castleton University in Vermont, serving as a Graduate Assistance in Strength & Conditioning as well as Assistant Coach for the Men’s Lacrosse Team. Grosso graduated from Castleton with a Master of Science in Athletic Leadership in 2017.
Grosso loves to inspire people everyday by helping them find their purpose and desire to live life to the fullest. Whether that be athletically or holistically her true passion stems from caring for others. Grosso states that “ Helping others is the way we help ourselves.”
When Grosso has free time, she’s often found living an active lifestyle with her dog, Callahan, and boyfriend, Blake. She loves to spend time with friends and family, travel, hike and oftentimes can be found playing soccer, lacrosse, basketball, golf and/or snowboarding. Grosso accredits all of her accomplishments to her parents Glen and Vicki. “ They have been to every game and supportive of all my successes and failures. I wouldn’t be where I am today without their constant love and support.”
Dr. Chelsea Jentsch, PT, DPT
Dr. Chelsea Jentsch received her Doctorate of Physical Therapy from The Ohio State University where she focused on performance based rehab, strength and conditioning and return to sport rehabilitation. Prior to attending Ohio State University, she earned her Bachelors in Exercise Science with minors in psychology and biology at The College at Brockport. While in school, Chelsea had the opportunity to teach strength and conditioning lectures to Ohio State’s athletic training program to help bridge the gap between rehabilitation and performance training.
Chelsea has treated and coached athletes at the high school, collegiate and professional level. She has worked with NFL athletes, college athletes training for the NFL combine, performing artists, and recreational athletes. In addition to working with competitive athletes, Chelsea has treated patients with goals of living a healthy and active lifestyle. She has a passion for helping people reach their highest potential through a wholistic approach to physical therapy, including structured exercise progressions, manual therapy, and consistent communication with her patients.
Chelsea is from Buffalo, NY and stays active through bodybuilding/powerlifting style training, Lagree, Pilates, and hiking. She believes that an active and pain-free lifestyle is the key to living a happy and healthy life.
Specialties: Physical Therapy, Strength & Conditioning, Return to Sport, Performance Training, Mind-body connection.
Dr. Abigail Crawford, PT, DPT
Dr. Abigail Crawford received her Doctorate of Physical Therapy degree from Wingate University with a focus on sports performance rehabilitation for athletes and service members. During her 3 years in the Doctorate program, she pursued and achieved certification as a NASM Personal Trainer and NSCA Strength and Conditioning Specialist. Prior to attending Wingate, she earned her Bachelor of Science degree in Sports Medicine along with a minor in Applied Mathematics at Pepperdine University.
In her experience as a Physical Therapist, Abby has enjoyed and had a focus on treating and training high school and college athletes, CrossFitters, Veterans, and first responders. Her experience with athletes is expansive and has ranged from youth baseball players to professional soccer and football players to recreational martial arts participants. She has a diverse a background and welcomes athletes of all ages and experiences that have the desire to live a healthy and active lifestyle.
In addition to her Physical therapy background, she has been a Swim Coach for over 10 years to competitive and recreational swimmers of various ages and levels. She has also had experience in Personal Training for athletes in multiple sports and in tutoring those that are pursuing their Personal Training certification. Outside of work, Abby is passionate about raising awareness for Veteran & Service Member mental health by volunteering and participating in community events for organizations with that same mission. She has volunteered and connected with organizations centered around equine therapy for those with physical and mental disabilities and hopes to start her own organization in the future.
Abby has grown up playing multiple sports and was a part of two competitive teams in softball and swimming. She became a Captain and started coaching her High School Swim team as a sophomore and continued to coach and be a member of the team until she graduated and went to Pepperdine University. At Pepperdine, she competed as a member of the Swim Team all four years and was a Co-Captain of the team her Senior year. Each year she earned the title of a Pepperdine Scholar athlete and received recognition with PCSC All Academic honorable mention in her last three years.
Abby is always on the move outside the clinic. She participates in CrossFit, powerlifting, running, yoga and HIIT training. Her recreational activities include snowboarding, hiking with her dog, climbing, and music. She loves any and all outdoor activities! She is committed to living a healthy and positive lifestyle that influences her patients to live in the same manner.
Abby has a deep desire to help her patients achieve their highest potential post-injury by creating a well-rounded and holistic approach to physical rehabilitation. She establishes a fun and motivating environment by using her skills of generating creative movements, using manual therapy, and communicating/educating her patients in a positive manner. Her number one goal is to help her patients achieve all of their goals through the magic of movement!
Services offered: Physical Therapy, Strength and Conditioning, Return to Sport Rehabilitation, Performance Training, and Tactical Athlete Rehabilitation/Training.
EMILIE PASHLEY, MPT
Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Manipulative Physiotherapists and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists.
FMS and SMFA certified
Certified Hardstyle Kettlebell Instructor
Sports taping certified
Emilie Pashley obtained her degree in Physical Therapy from the University of Toronto and has been practicing physical therapy in sports medicine clinics since 2008. She became a Fellow of the Canadian and American academies of manual and manipulative therapy after successfully completing her manual therapy fellowship training in 2014.
Emilie’s therapeutic approach is a blend of her manual therapy training and functional movement pattern correction. Functional movement screening and assessment helps to pinpoint the cause behind chronic conditions like repetitive strain injuries and low back pain. It can also be used to help prevent movement dysfunction following surgical procedures as well as sprain and strain injuries. A careful analysis of movement strategies in combination with a thorough assessment of the involved joints and muscles is used to develop a personalized treatment plan to get you back to regular activities and return to sport
Emilie has worked with athletes of all levels including football, basketball and soccer players as well as with athletes in aquatic sports such as competitive swimming, synchronized swimming, and diving.
Emilie grew up playing soccer and basketball and is an avid downhill skier. She also enjoys playing ultimate frisbee, working out, scuba diving, travelling and cooking.
Evan Roeder, DC
Dr. Evan Roeder received his Doctor of Chiropractic Medicine Degree from New York Chiropractic College, now know as Northeast School of Health Science, in Seneca Falls New York. He chose NYCC because they provide an evidence based approach to care and their curriculum focuses on contemporary teachings of Chiropractic Medicine. While at NYCC he was involved in various clubs including rehab to perform, motion palpation club, and sports performance care. Evan has a passion for treating athletes of any age, level of competition, and sport.
Before Chiropractic college he attended Duquesne University in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, where he studied Athletic Training. During his time at Duquesne, he was able to work closely with the Football and Women’s Volleyball team in an athletic training setting. In addition to this clinical experience, he worked as an intern for the strength and conditioning program for D-1 athletes at the school. During this time he instructed Olympic weight lifting techniques and designed strength and conditioning programs.
Evan grew up as an athlete himself, participating in soccer, baseball, and basketball. He remains active, playing all of those sports and also participating in Crossfit. Evan will “play anything that involves competition and/or a ball.” In his spare time, Evan enjoys golfing, hiking, exploring new things around the city, and playing in recreational sports leagues. He is also an avid Boston sports fan. He is extremely passionate about helping his patients recover from their injuries, preventing future injuries, improving their performance, and educating them on how they can maintain their health and well-being. He encourages movement to help rehabilitate. He always educates his patients about their conditions, so that they can be a large part of their own healing.
Dr. Evan is certified in Dry Needling and believes it is a very useful and effective modality for many of his patients. He also has a passion for Neurology. He is currently enrolled in a Neurological rehabilitation program through the Carrick institute. The unique blend of sports medicine and neurology allows him to treat a wide array of conditions and approach them from different perspectives.